What is FGMO Operation in BD

What Is FGMO Operation In BD
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What is FGMO Operation In BD , Bangladesh starts role out FGMO in all power plants in Bangladesh from Late 2023. This will help maintain a steady frequency by adjusting the generation output. This approach is crucial in balancing the supply and demand of electricity and preventing frequency deviations that could lead to power disruptions.

The Government of Bangladesh took serious steps for National Power grid Stability after Power Blackout in November 2014.

When will FGMO be online in the national grid: Latest

The exact date has not been confirmed by the PGCB. As we all know, since late 2023, the PGCB has been implementing FGMO technology in Power plants in Bangladesh , including engine and turbine power plants.

Industry insiders assume that the FGMO system must be implemented in the national grid before the Commercial Operation Date (COD) of The biggest power plant in Bangladesh, the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant, to stabilize the grid frequency effectively.

History of Free governor mode of operation in Bangladesh

  1. Unstable System Frequency: Historically, Bangladesh’s power system has suffered from unstable system frequency, typically varying within the range of 50±1.2 Hz, due to the lack of proper frequency control mechanisms.
  2. 2014 Countrywide Blackout: On November 1, 2014, a major countrywide blackout occurred, which triggered reactions and measures to address the issue of system frequency variation.
  3. FGMO Initiatives were taken to activate the governors of several generating units immediately for primary frequency response, aiming to arrest system frequency variation within the range of 50±0.5 Hz. This was known as the FGMO initiative.
  4. Goal of AGC Implementation: The ultimate goal of these measures was to stabilize system frequency within a tighter range by implementing all levels of frequency control (primary, secondary, and tertiary) through an Automatic Generation Control (AGC) system in the future.
  5. FGMO trail : A set of trials for frequency regulation by FGMO was conducted in the Bangladesh power system, involving seven to ten power plants. These trials were conducted in incremental time periods of 2 hours, 8 hours, and 1 month.
  6. Generating Units Involved: The trials involved different types of generating units, such as gas turbines, hydro units, and combined cycle power plants, running on various fuels like natural gas, liquid fuel, and hydro.
  7. The trials were conducted on October 2016 and supervised from the National Load Dispatch Center in Dhaka, with the help of the Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB).
  8. The trials provided interesting findings and lessons learned, which could be valuable for other developing countries facing similar issues with frequency control and power system stability.

Unstable Frequency: What is FGMO Operation in BD

Reasons of Unstable System Frequency in Bangladesh

Several factors contribute to the unstable frequency in the Bangladesh power system:

  • Generation Gaps: Lack of generating plants providing automatic primary frequency response. Most plants do not participate in frequency control.
  • Control Void: Absence of secondary and tertiary control like Load Frequency Control or Automatic Generation Control.
  • Industrial Flux: Load fluctuations from large, oscillating industrial loads.
  • Antiquated Governors: Old generators with governor system problems causing output fluctuations.
  • Mode Mishaps: Plants running in wrong mode (Turbine Exhaust Temperature Control) that reduces output as frequency drops.
  • Demand Lag: Lack of fast load management capability to match demand and generation.

Impacts of Unstable Frequency in Bangladesh

  • Reduces system security and increases blackout risk
  • Causes equipment damage and energy losses
  • Hampers integration of large power plants and renewables
  • Increases power interruptions and reduces reliability
Analysis of real time frequency transients and inertia estimation of Bangladesh power system
Trail of FGMO in bd

Prerequisite of Implementing Effective FGMO

Before implementing FGMO , NLDC and PGCB conduct a FGMO trail on October 2016 To ensure effective FGMO, founding’s are [1]:

  • FGMO trial results showed Bangladesh power system can maintain frequency within 50±0.5 Hz band
  • 350 to 400 MW spinning reserve needed for contingencies < 300 MW
  • Contingencies > 300 MW require special protection systems like contingency-based load shed
  • Measures ensure economic operation, prevent blackouts, and maintain power quality for consumers
  • Adoption reduces gas usage, lowers carbon and local pollutant emissions
  • Some limitations exist for running all units on FGMO, but they’re addressable with minimal investments
  • Activating governors of 15-20 units out of 108 plants can save around $500 million USD annually
  • Removing transmission and distribution constraints, dispatch inefficiencies can yield over $1 billion USD in savings yearly
  • Solving frequency issues opens doors for larger investments in interconnection, coal/gas/nuclear units, and renewable energy.

The Benefits And Significance Of FGMO In BD

Enhancing frequency regulation in the power grid

  1. It refers to the autonomous regulation and droop characteristics of a power plant’s governor system.
  2. FGMO allows the governor to automatically adjust and compensate for changes in grid frequency.
  3. It does so by regulating the power generation output of the plant.
  4. This autonomous adjustment by the governor helps maintain grid frequency within desired limits.
  5. It enables power plants to respond dynamically to frequency fluctuations without external interventions.

Improving the stability of the electricity supply

One of the significant benefits of FGMO in Bangladesh is its ability to improve the stability of the electricity supply. With FGMO, power plants can effectively regulate and maintain a consistent frequency, which is crucial for the stable operation of electrical equipment and devices.

When the frequency deviates from the desired level, the governor in FGMO mode quickly adjusts the generation to compensate for the change. This rapid response ensures that the power supply remains stable and reliable, preventing voltage fluctuations and potential disruptions.

Challenges And Solutions For Implementing Fgmo In Bangladesh

Challenges and Solutions for Implementing FGMO in Bangladesh

  • Upgrading existing power plants for FGMO involves enhancing turbines and governors.
  • Power grid infrastructure needs upgrading for seamless integration with FGMO, requiring advanced control systems.
  • Regulatory challenges include aligning existing frameworks with FGMO requirements and introducing new regulations if needed.
  • Collaboration between regulatory bodies, power plant operators, and industry experts is vital for effective guideline development and approval processes.


What Is Free Governor Mode Operation?

Free Governor Mode Operation (FGMO) is a mode where the governor of a power plant adjusts the generation of steam to regulate frequency.

What Is Fgmo Mode?

FGMO mode is a governor operation where the generation changes to compensate for frequency changes.

What Are The Governor Modes Of Operation?

The governor modes of operation include Turbine Droop Control, Turbine Load Control, and Turbine Isochronous Control.

What Is The Difference Between Rgmo And Fgmo?

FGMO and RGMO are modes of operation in steam turbines. FGMO compensates frequency changes by adjusting generation, while RGMO is not specified.


-[1] Md. Adil Chawdhury. “An Endeavor of Frequency Regulation by Free Governor Mode of
Operation in Bangladesh Power System
.” IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) 12.4 (2017): 75-87
– Kabir, Md & Hadi, Abdullah. (2018). FGMO Trial for frequency regulation in Bangladesh Power System. 89-92. 10.1109/ICECE.2018.8636787..

FGMO Trial for frequency regulation in Bangladesh Power System

Kabir, Md. Arifur et al. “Frequency transient analysis of countrywide blackout of Bangladesh Power System on 1st November, 2014.” 2015 International Conference on Advances in Electrical Engineering (ICAEE) (2015): 267-270.

Bangladesh Power System Reliability and Efficiency Improvement Project final report 4 May 2017


Report of the Committee on Free Governor Mode Operation of Generating Units

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